• Hydrogen peroxide production process
  • Hydrogen peroxide production process

Cov txheej txheem tsim cov tshuaj hydrogen peroxide

Nqe lus piav qhia luv:

Cov tshuaj lom neeg ntawm hydrogen peroxide yog H2O2, feem ntau hu ua hydrogen peroxide. Cov tsos yog cov kua tsis muaj xim tsis muaj xim, nws yog cov muaj zog oxidant, nws cov kua dej yog tsim rau tshuaj tua kab mob thiab tshuaj tua kab mob ib puag ncig thiab tua kab mob zaub mov.


Khoom nthuav dav

Khoom cim npe

Cov txheej txheem tsim cov tshuaj hydrogen peroxide

Cov tshuaj lom neeg ntawm hydrogen peroxide yog H2O2, feem ntau hu ua hydrogen peroxide. Cov tsos yog cov kua tsis muaj xim tsis muaj xim, nws yog cov muaj zog oxidant, nws cov kua dej yog tsim rau tshuaj tua kab mob thiab tshuaj tua kab mob ib puag ncig thiab tua kab mob zaub mov. Raws li qhov xwm txheej ib txwm muaj, nws yuav decompose rau hauv dej thiab oxygen, tab sis qhov kev sib tawg yog qeeb heev, thiab qhov nrawm ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tau nrawm dua los ntawm kev ntxiv cov catalyst - manganese dioxide lossis hluav taws xob luv luv.

Lub cev muaj zog

Kev daws cov kua dej yog cov kua tsis muaj xim tsis muaj xim, yaj hauv dej, cawv, ether, thiab tsis yaj hauv benzene thiab roj av ether.

Ntshiab hydrogen peroxide yog lub teeb xiav khov ua kua nrog lub melting point ntawm -0.43 ° C thiab lub ntsiab lus kub ntawm 150.2 ° C. Cov dej ntshiab hydrogen peroxide yuav hloov nws cov qauv txheej txheem, yog li cov ntsiab lus melting tseem yuav hloov. Cov khoom ntom ntom ntawm qhov chaw khov yog 1.71 g/, thiab qhov ntom ntog poob vim qhov kub nce. Nws muaj qib sib koom ua ke ntau dua li H2O, yog li nws cov dielectric tsis tu ncua thiab kub taw tes yog siab dua dej. Ntshiab hydrogen peroxide yog qhov ruaj khov, thiab nws tau tawg hnyav rau hauv dej thiab cov pa oxygen thaum ua kom sov txog 153 ° C. Nws tsim nyog sau cia tias tsis muaj cov sib txuas hydrogen sib xyaw hauv hydrogen peroxide.

Hydrogen peroxide muaj qhov ua kom muaj zog oxidation ntawm cov organic thiab feem ntau siv los ua tus neeg sawv cev oxidizing.

Cov khoom siv tshuaj

1. Oxidative
(Ua cov hmoov dawb hauv cov roj pleev xim [cov hmoov txhuas ua carbonate] yuav ua rau muaj hydrogen sulfide nyob rau saum huab cua los ua cov hmoov txhuas dub, uas tuaj yeem ntxuav nrog hydrogen peroxide)
(yuav tsum tau nruab nrab alkaline)

2. Txo
3. Hauv 10 ml ntawm 10% cov qauv piv txwv, ntxiv 5 ml ntawm dilute sulfuric acid test solution (TS-241) thiab 1 ml ntawm potassium permanganate test solution (TS-193).
Yuav tsum muaj cov npuas thiab cov xim poov tshuaj permanganate ploj mus. Nws yog acidic rau litmus. Nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm cov organic teeb meem, nws yog qhov tawg.
4. Noj 1 g ntawm tus qauv (raug rau 0.1 mg) thiab dilute rau 250.0 ml nrog dej. 25 ml ntawm cov tshuaj no tau noj, thiab 10 ml ntawm dilute sulfuric acid test solution (TS-241) tau ntxiv, ua raws li titration nrog 0.1 mol/L potassium permanganate. 0.1 mol/L ib ml. Cov poov tshuaj permanganate sib xws rau 1.70 mg ntawm hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2).
5. Nyob rau qhov xwm txheej ntawm cov organic, cua sov, kev tso pa thiab dej, thaum muaj cov tshuaj chromic acid, poov tshuaj permanganate, cov hmoov hlau tau ua phem. Txhawm rau tiv thaiv kev sib tsoo, ib qho me me ntawm cov khoom ruaj khov xws li sodium stannate, sodium pyrophosphate lossis lwm yam tuaj yeem ntxiv.
6. Hydrogen peroxide yog cov kua qaub heev: H2O2 = (thim rov qab) = H ++ HO2- (Ka = 2.4 x 10-12). Yog li ntawd, cov hlau peroxide tuaj yeem suav tias yog nws ntsev.

Lub hom phiaj tseem ceeb

Kev siv hydrogen peroxide tau muab faib ua kev kho mob, tub rog thiab kev lag luam. Kev tua kab mob txhua hnub yog kev kho mob hydrogen peroxide. Kev kho mob hydrogen peroxide tuaj yeem tua cov kab mob hauv plab hnyuv, pyogenic cocci, thiab cov kab mob pathogenic, uas feem ntau yog siv rau kev tua kab mob ntawm cov khoom. Hydrogen peroxide muaj cov nyhuv oxidation, tab sis qhov kev tsom xam ntawm kev kho mob hydrogen peroxide sib npaug lossis qis dua 3%. Thaum nws tau so rau ntawm qhov txhab, nws yuav hlawv, qhov chaw yuav oxidized rau hauv dawb thiab ua npuas, thiab nws tuaj yeem ntxuav nrog dej. Tom qab 3-5 feeb Rov kho cov tawv nqaij qub.

Kev lag luam tshuaj lom neeg tau siv los ua raw khoom los tsim sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, peracetic acid, sodium chlorite, thiourea peroxide, thiab lwm yam, cov tshuaj oxidizing xws li tartaric acid thiab vitamins. Kev lag luam kws tshuaj siv ua tshuaj tua kab mob, tshuaj tua kab mob, thiab oxidant rau kev tsim cov thiram thiab 40 liv ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob tua kab mob. Kev lag luam luam ntawv thiab zas xim yog siv los ua tus neeg sawv cev tshuaj dawb rau ntaub paj rwb thiab ua tus neeg pleev xim rau vat dyeing. Tshem tawm cov hlau thiab lwm yam hlau hnyav thaum siv hauv kev tsim cov hlau ntsev lossis lwm yam sib xyaw. Kuj siv hauv chav da dej kom tshem tawm cov khoom tsis huv thiab txhim kho qhov zoo ntawm cov khoom plated. Kuj tseem siv los ua cov ntaub plaub dawb, txhob lo lo ntxhuav nyoos, kaus ntxhw, paj noob hlis, roj, thiab lwm yam.

Kev siv pej xeem: los daws qhov tsis hnov ​​tsw ntawm cov kav dej hauv chav ua noj, mus rau lub tsev muag tshuaj kom yuav hydrogen peroxide ntxiv rau dej ntxiv rau ntxuav cov hmoov rau hauv cov kav dej tuaj yeem ua kom tsis huv, tua kab mob, tsis muaj menyuam;

3% hydrogen peroxide (qib kho mob) rau qhov txhab tua kab mob.

Txoj cai lij choj

Alkaline hydrogen peroxide txoj hauv kev tsim tawm: krypton-muaj cov pa hluav taws xob ua rau ua rau alkaline hydrogen peroxide, tus yam ntxwv uas txhua khub ntawm cov hluav taws xob tau tsim los ntawm cov phaj anode, yas yas, cation membrane thiab muaj cov pa helium uas muaj huab cua, nyob rau sab saud thiab qis kawg ntawm thaj chaw ua haujlwm electrode. Muaj lub chaw faib khoom rau nkag mus rau hauv cov kua thiab chav ntim khoom rau tso dej tawm, thiab lub qhov dej tau npaj rau ntawm cov dej nkag, thiab cov khoom siv hluav taws xob ntau tau txais kev txwv tsawg dipole series txuas txoj hauv kev txhawm rau txhawm rau ua kom cov yas mos ntawm cov anode ncig alkali dej nkag thiab qhov hluav taws xob. Tom qab lub raj txuas nrog cov kua sib sau ua ke, cov pab pawg sib xyaw ua hluav taws xob ntau tau sib sau ua ke los ntawm chav tsev phaj.

Phosphoric acid neutralization method: nws yog tus yam ntxwv uas nws tau npaj los ntawm cov kua dej sodium peroxide daws los ntawm cov kauj ruam hauv qab no:

(1) Kev daws cov kua dej ntawm sodium peroxide yog nruab nrab rau pH ntawm 9.0 txog 9.7 nrog phosphoric acid lossis sodium dihydrogen phosphate NaH2PO4 los tsim cov kua dej ntawm Na2HPO4 thiab H2O2.

(2) Cov tshuaj aqueous ntawm Na2HPO4 thiab H2O2 tau txias mus rau +5 txog -5 ° C yog li ntawd feem ntau ntawm Na2HPO4 tau nag los ua Na2HPO4 • 10H2O hydrate.

(3) Kev sib xyaw uas muaj Na2HPO4 • 10H 2 O hydrate thiab cov kua hydrogen peroxide tov tau muab cais ua cov centrifugal cais kom cais Na 2HPO 4 • 10H 2 O crystals los ntawm Na2 HPO 4 me me thiab cov kua hydrogen peroxide tov.

(4) Cov kua dej uas muaj me me ntawm Na2HPO4 thiab hydrogen peroxide tau yaj hauv cov evaporator kom tau txais cov pa uas muaj H2O2 thiab H2O, thiab cov tshuaj sib xyaw ntsev ntawm Na2HPO4 uas muaj hydrogen peroxide tau tso tawm hauv qab thiab rov qab mus rau lub tank nruab nrab. .

(5) Cov pa uas muaj H2O2 thiab H2O raug rau kev faib ua feem hauv qhov txo qis kom tau li 30% H2O2 khoom.

Electrolytic sulfuric acid method: electrolyzed 60% sulfuric acid kom tau txais peroxodisulfuric acid, thiab tom qab ntawd hydrolyzed kom tau txais qhov siab ntawm 95% hydrogen peroxide.

2-Ethyl oxime method: Txoj hauv kev tseem ceeb ntawm kev tsim khoom lag luam yog 2-ethyl oxime (EAQ) txoj hauv kev. 2-ethyl hydrazine ntawm qhov kub thiab txias.

Lub zog ua haujlwm nrog hydrogen nyob rau hauv qhov kev ua ntawm catalyst los ua 2-ethylhydroquinone, thiab 2-ethylhydroquinone tsim cov pa oxygen nrog oxygen ntawm qhov kub thiab txias.

Kev txo qis cov tshuaj tiv thaiv, 2-ethylhydroquinone tau txo los ua 2-ethyl hydrazine thiab hydrogen peroxide tau tsim. Tom qab rho tawm, tau txais cov kua dej hydrogen peroxide daws tau, thiab thaum kawg ua kom huv los ntawm cov ntxhiab tsw ntxhiab tsw ntxhiab tsw ntxhiab kom tau txais cov kua dej hydrogen peroxide tsim nyog, feem ntau hu ua hydrogen peroxide. Feem ntau ntawm cov txheej txheem no yog siv los npaj 27.5% hydrogen peroxide, thiab muaj cov dej sib tov ntau dua cov kua hydrogen peroxide (xws li 35%, 50% hydrogen peroxide) tuaj yeem tau los ntawm kev sib tov.


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